Go echo bot

Echo bot

This post was going to be about advanced ksonnet usage, but it went more about the echo bot itself, so I decided to rename it.

To be honest, there is no other way to get the benefits of having ksonnet if you’re not going to take advantage of the deployments as code facilities that it brings thanks to Jsonnet.

This time we will see how to use proper templates, it seems that the templates generated with ks are outdated at the time of this writing ksonnet version is: 0.13.1, no surprise here because it’s not a really mature tool. It does require a lot of effort in learning, hacking and reading to get things to work, but hopefully soon it will be easier, of course this is my personal opinion and I have not used it for a real project yet, but I expect it to grow and become more usable before I attempt to do something for the real world with it.

In the examples I will be using minikube or you can check out this repo that has a good overview of minikube, once installed and started (minikube start) that command will download and configure the local environment, if you have been following the previous posts you already have minikube installed and working:

Let’s get started

This time I’m not going to deploy another wordpress instance but a simple Slack echo bot made with go:

package main

import (

        slack "github.com/nlopes/slack"

func main() {
        api := slack.New(

        rtm := api.NewRTM()
        go rtm.ManageConnection()

        for msg := range rtm.IncomingEvents {
                fmt.Print("Event Received: ")
                switch ev := msg.Data.(type) {
                case *slack.HelloEvent:
                        // Ignore hello

                case *slack.ConnectedEvent:
                        fmt.Println("Infos:", ev.Info)
                        fmt.Println("Connection counter:", ev.ConnectionCount)

                case *slack.MessageEvent:
                        // Only echo what it said to me
                        fmt.Printf("Message: %v\n", ev)
                        info := rtm.GetInfo()
                        prefix := fmt.Sprintf("<@%s> ", info.User.ID)

                        if ev.User != info.User.ID && strings.HasPrefix(ev.Text, prefix) {
                                rtm.SendMessage(rtm.NewOutgoingMessage(ev.Text, ev.Channel))

                case *slack.PresenceChangeEvent:
                        fmt.Printf("Presence Change: %v\n", ev)

                case *slack.LatencyReport:
                        fmt.Printf("Current latency: %v\n", ev.Value)

                case *slack.RTMError:
                        fmt.Printf("Error: %s\n", ev.Error())

                case *slack.InvalidAuthEvent:
                        fmt.Printf("Invalid credentials")


                        // Ignore other events..
                        // fmt.Printf("Unexpected: %v\n", msg.Data)
As you can see it’s the simplest example from the readme of the Go Slack API project, it only connects to Slack and when it reads a message if it’s addressed to the bot then it echoes the message back, creating a bot and everything else is out of the scope of this article but it’s really simple, you only need to create an app in the Slack workspace, set it as a bot and grab the token (there is a lot more that you can customize but that is the most basic procedure to get started with a bot), then you just invite it to any channel that you want and start interacting with it.

Here you can see the Dockerfile, for security we create an app user for the build and for running it, and to save space and bandwidth we only ship what we need using a multi-stage build:

# Build
FROM golang:1.11.2-alpine as builder

RUN adduser -D -g 'app' app && \
    chown -R app:app /app && \
    apk add git && apk add gcc musl-dev

ADD . /app/
RUN go get -d -v ./... && go build -o main . && chown -R app:app /app /home/app

# Run
FROM golang:1.11.2-alpine

RUN adduser -D -g 'app' app && \
    chown -R app:app /app

COPY --from=builder --chown=app /app/health_check.sh /app/health_check.sh
COPY --from=builder --chown=app /app/main /app/main

USER app
CMD ["/app/main"]
There are a few more files in there, you can see the full sources here, for example health_check.sh, as our app doesn’t listen on any port we need a way to tell kubernetes how to check if our app is alive.

Okay, enough boilerplate let’s get to business, so let’s create a new ksonnet application:

$ ks init echobot
INFO Using context "minikube" from kubeconfig file "~/.kube/config"
INFO Creating environment "default" with namespace "default", pointing to "version:v1.8.0" cluster at address ""
INFO Generating ksonnet-lib data at path '~/Webs/echobot/echobot/lib/ksonnet-lib/v1.8.0'

And now let’s grab a template and modify it accordingly to be able to create the deployment for the bot components/echobot.jsonnet:

// Import KSonnet library
local params = std.extVar('__ksonnet/params').components.demo;
local k = import 'k.libsonnet';

// Specify the import objects that we need
local container = k.extensions.v1beta1.deployment.mixin.spec.template.spec.containersType;
local depl = k.extensions.v1beta1.deployment;

// Environment variables, instead of hardcoding it here we could use a param or a secret
// But I will leave that as an exercise for you :)
local envs = [
    name: 'SLACK_API_TOKEN',
    value: 'really-long-token',

local livenessProbe = {
  exec: {
    command: [

// Define containers
local containers = [
  container.new('echobot', 'kainlite/echobot:0.0.2') {
    env: (envs),
    livenessProbe: livenessProbe,

// Define deployment with 3 replicas
local deployment =
  depl.new('echobot', 1, containers, { app: 'echobot' });

local resources = [deployment];

// Return list of resources.
Note that I have uploaded that image to docker hub so you can use it to follow the example if you want, after that just replace really-long-token with your token, and then do:
$ ks apply default
INFO Applying deployments echobot
INFO Creating non-existent deployments echobot

And now if we check our deployment and pod, we should see something like this:

And in the logs:

 $ kubectl get pods
NAME                               READY     STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
echobot-7456f7d7dd-twg4r           1/1       Running   0          53s

$ kubectl logs -f echobot-7456f7d7dd-twg4r
Event Received: Event Received: Infos: &{wss://cerberus-xxxx.lb.slack-msgs.com/websocket/1gvXP_yQCFE-Y= 0xc000468000 0xc0004482a0 [] [] [] [] []}
Connection counter: 0
Event Received: Event Received: Current latency: 1.256397423s
Event Received: Current latency: 1.25679313s
Event Received: Current latency: 1.256788737s
Event Received: Message: &{{message CEDGU6EA0 UEDJT5DDH <@UED48HD33> echo! 1546124966.002300  false [] [] <nil>  false 0  false  1546124966.002300   <nil>      [] 0 []  [] false <nil>  0 TEDJT5CTD []  false false} <nil>}

And that folks is all I have for now, I hope you enjoyed this small tour of ksonnet. The source code for the bot can be found here. In a future post I might explore ksonnet and helm charts.

Upcoming topics

As promised I will be doing one post about Gitkube and Skaffold, there are a lot of deployment tools for kubernetes but those are the most promising ones to me, also after that I will start covering more topics about Docker, ContainerD, KubeADM, and Kubernetes in general.


If you spot any error or have any suggestion, please send me a message so it gets fixed.

Also, you can check the source code and changes in the generated code and the sources here

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